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3-D CdZnTe Detectors

B. W. Sturm, Z. He, T. H. Zurbuchen, and P. L. Koehn, "Investigation of the Asymmetric Characteristics and Temperature Effects of CdZnTe Detectors", IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci. vol. 52(5), pp. 2068-2075, 2005.

Z. He and B. W. Sturm, "Characteristics of depth-sensing coplanar grid CdZnTe detectors," Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 554, pp. 291-299, 2005.

B. W. Sturm, Z. He, E. A. Rhodes, T. H. Zurbuchen, and P. L. Koehn, “Coplanar grid CdZnTe detectors for space science applications”, Proceedings SPIE, vol. 5540,
pp. 14–21, 2004.

R. Gonzαlez, J. M. Pιrez and Z. He, "Efficiency at different interaction depths in large coplanar CdZnTe detectors", Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 531, pp. 544-559, 2004.

J.M. Perez, Z. He, D.K. Wehe, Y.F. Du, "Estimate of large CZT detector absolute efficiency", IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci. vol. 49(4), pp. 2010-2018, 2002.

J.M. Perez, Z. He, D. Wehe, "Stability and characteristics of large CZT coplanar electrode detectors", IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci. vol. 48(3), pp. 272-277, 2001.

Z. He, G. F. Knoll, D. K. Wehe, and Y. F. Du, "Coplanar grid patterns and their effect on energy resolution of CdZnTe detectors," Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 411, pp. 107-113, 1998.

Z. He, G. F. Knoll, D. K. Wehe, and J. Miyamoto, "Position-sensitive single carrier CdZnTe detectors," Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 388, pp. 180-185, 1997.

Z. He, G. F. Knoll, D. K. Wehe, R. Rojeski, C. H. Mastrangelo, M. Hamming, C. Barrett, and A. Uritani, "1-D position sensitive single carrier semiconductor detectors", Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 380, pp. 228-231, 1996.

Z. He, "Potential distribution within semiconductor detectors using coplanar electrodes", Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 365, pp. 572-575, 1995.

Coplanar Grid CdZnTe Detectors

W. Wang, W. Kaye, J. C. Kim, F. Zhang, Z. He, “Improvement of Compton imaging efficiency by using side-neighbor events”, Nucl. Instr. & Meth. A, 687 (2012) 62-68.

W. Wang, C. G. Wahl, J. M. Jaworski, Z. He, “Maximum-Likelihood Deconvolution in the Spatial and Spatial-Energy Domain for Events With Any Number of Interactions”, IEEE Tran. on Nucl. Sci. Vol. 59(2), pp. 469-478, Apr. 2012.

J. C. Kim, W. R. Kaye, W. Wang, F. Zhang, Z. He “Impact of drift time variation on the Compton image from large-volume CdZnTe crystals”,  Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 683 (2012) 53-62

D. J. Lingenfelter, J. A. Fessler, C. D. Scott, Z. He, “Asymptotic Source Detection Performance of Gamma-Ray Imaging Systems Under Model Mismatch”, IEEE Tran. on Sig. Proc. Vol. 59(11), pp. 5141-5151, Nov. 2011.

C. G. Wahl, Z. He, "Gamma-Ray Point-Source Detection in Unknown
Background Using 3D-Position-Sensitive Semiconductor Detectors
",
Nuclear Science, IEEE Tran. on Nucl. Sci. Vol. 58(3), pp. 605-613, Jun. 2011.

D. Xu, Z. He, “Gamma-ray energy-imaging integrated spectral deconvolution”, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 574 (2007) 98-109

D. Xu, Z. He, “Filtered Back-Projection in 4-pi Compton imaging with a single 3D position sensitive CdZnTe Detector”, IEEE Tran. on Nucl. Sci. vol. 53 (5), pp. 2787-2795, Oct. 2006

D. Xu, Z. He, F. Zhang, "Detection of gamma ray polarization using a 3D position-sensitive CdZnTe detector'', IEEE Tran. on Nucl. Sci. vol. 52(4), pp. 1160-1164, 2005.

D. Xu, Z. He, C. E. Lehner, and F. Zhang, “4-pi compton imaging with single 3d position sensitive cdznte detector,” Proceedings SPIE, vol. 5540, pp. 144–155, 2004.

C.E. Lehner, Z. He, F. Zhang, "4pi Compton imaging using a 3-D position-sensitive CdZnTe detector via weighted list-mode maximum likelihood", IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci. vol. 51(4), pp. 1618-1624, 2004.

C.E. Lehner, Z. He, G.F. Knoll, "Intelligent gamma-ray spectroscopy using 3-D position-sensitive detectors", Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 50(4), pp. 1090-1097, 2003.

Y. F. Du, Z. He, G. F. Knoll, and D. K. Wehe, "Effects of mechanical alignment errors on Compton scatter imaging," IEEE Tran. on Nucl. Sci., vol. 47, pp. 885-9, 2000.

Y. F. Du, Z. He, G. F. Knoll, D. K. Wehe, and W. Li, "Evaluation of a Compton scattering camera using 3-D position sensitive CdZnTe detectors," Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 457, pp. 203-211, 2001.

L.E. Smith, Z. He, D.K. Wehe, G.F. Knoll, S.J. Wilderman, "Design and modeling of the Hybrid Portable Gamma Camera system", IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci. vol. 45(3), pp. 963-969, 1998.

Z. He, L.E. Smith, D.K. Wehe, G.F. Knoll, "The CSPD-2 gamma-ray imaging system", IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci. vol. 44, pp. 911-915, 1997.

S. V. Guru, Z. He, D. K. Wehe, G. F. Knoll, R. H. Redus and M. R. Squillante, "Portable high energy gamma ray imagers", Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 378, pp. 612-619, 1996.

Z. He, J. Obermark, J. Du, D.K. Wehe, S. W. Lee, G.F. Knoll, "The CSPD-1 gamma-ray vision system", IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci. vol. 43, pp. 1154-1158, 1996.

S.V. Guru, Z. He, D.K. Wehe, G.F. Knoll, "A Portable Gamma Camera for Radiation Monitoring", IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci. vol. 42, pp. 940-945, 1995.

Z. He, S.V., Guru, D.K. Wehe, G.F. Knoll, A. Truman, D. Ramsden, "Portable wide-angle gamma-ray vision systems", IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci., vol. 42, pp. 668-674, 1995.

S. V. Guru, Z. He, J. C. Ferreria, D. K. Wehe and G. F. Knoll, "A high energy gamma camera using a multiple hole collimator and PSPMT", Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 353, pp. 328-333, 1994.

Gamma-ray Imaging Systems

L. J. Meng, Z. He, “Spectroscopic Performance of Thick HgI2 Detectors”, IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci. vol. 53(3), pp. 1706-1712, 2006

L. J. Meng, Z. He, "Estimate interaction timing in a large volume HgI2 detector usingcathode pulse waveforms", Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 545, pp. 234-251, 2005.

J.E. Baciak, Z. He, "Long-term stability of 1-cm thick pixelated HgI2 gamma-ray spectrometers operating at room temperature", IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci. vol. 51(4), pp. 1886-1894, 2004.

J.E. Baciak, Z. He, "Spectroscopy on thick HgI2 detectors: a comparison between planar and pixelated electrodes", IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci. vol. 50(4), pp. 1220-1224, 2003.

J. E. Baciak, Z. He, "Comparison of 5 and 10 mm thick HgI2 pixelated -ray spectrometers", Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 505, pp. 191-194, 2003.

J.E. Baciak, Z. He, R.P. DeVito, "Electron trapping variations in single-crystal pixelated HgI2 gamma-ray spectrometers", IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci. vol. 49(3), pp. 1264-1269, 2002.

Z. He, R. D. Vigil, "Investigation of pixellated HgI2 gamma-ray spectrometers", Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 492, pp. 387-401, 2002.

HgI2 Gamma-ray Detectors

S. D. Kiff, Z. He and G. Tepper, “ Improving spectroscopic performance of a coplanar-anode high-pressure xenon gamma-ray spectrometer”, IEEE Trans. On Nucl. Sci., vol. 54(4), pp. 1263-1270, August 2007.

C. J. Sullivan, Z. He, G. F. Knoll, G. Tepper and D. K. Wehe, "A high pressure xenon gamma-ray spectrometer using a coplanar anode configuration", Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 505, pp. 238-241, 2003.

S. D. Kiff, Z. He, and G. C. Tepper, "A new coplanar-grid high-pressure xenon gamma-ray spectrometer", IEEE Trans. On Nucl. Sci., vol. 52(6), pp. 2932-2939, 2005.

S. D. Kiff, Z. He, and G. C. Tepper, "Radial Position Sensing in a Coplanar-Grid High-Pressure Xenon Gamma-Ray Spectrometer", IEEE Trans. On Nucl. Sci., vol. 53(3), June 2006.

High Pressure Xenon Detectors

D. S. McGregor, R. A. Rojeski, Z. He, D. K. Wehe, M. Driver and M. Blakely, "Geometrically weighted semiconductor Frisch grid radiation spectrometers", Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 422, pp. 164-168, 1999.

D.S. McGregor, Z. He, H.A. Seifert, R.A. Rojeski, D.K. Wehe,"CdZnTe semiconductor parallel strip Frisch grid radiation detectors", IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci. vol. 45(3), pp. 443-449, 1998.

D. S. McGregor, Z. He, H. A. Seifert, D. K. Wehe, and R. A. Rojeski, "Single charge carrier type sensing with a parallel strip pseudo-Frisch-grid CdZnTe semiconductor radiation detector", Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 72(7), pp. 792-794, 1998

Y. Dewaraja, Z. He, R. F. Fleming, D. K. Wehe, R. H. Fleming, "Radionuclide mapping using a position sensitive photomultiplier tube and a germanium detector", IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci. vol. 42, pp. 649-652, 1995.

Y. Dewaraja, Z. He, R. F. Fleming, D. K. Wehe, S. V. Guru, J. C. Ferreira, R. H. Fleming, "A position sensitive beta-gamma coincidence technique for multiplexed gamma spectrometry of many small samples", Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 353, pp. 588-592, 1994.

Others

Y. Boucher, F. Zhang, W. Kaye, Z. He, “New measurement technique for the product of the electron mobility and mean free drift time for pixilated semiconductor detectors”, Nucl. Instr. & Meth. A. Vol. 671 (1), pp. 1-5, Apr. 2012.

Z. He, "Review of the Shockley-Ramo theorem and its application in semiconductor gamma-ray detectors", Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 463, pp. 250-267, 2001.

Z. He, G. F. Knoll, and D. K. Wehe, "Direct measurement of product of the electron mobility and mean free drift time of CdZnTe semiconductors using position sensitive single polarity charge sensing detectors," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 84, pp. 5566-5569, 1998.

Z. He, G. F. Knoll, and D. K. Wehe, "Direct measurement of electron drift parameters of wide band gap semiconductors," Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 411, pp. 114-20, 1998.

Fundamental Principles and Methods

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Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences Department, University of Michigan

Radiation Measurement Group

Publications

F. Zhang, C. Herman, Z. He, G. De Ceronimo, E. Vernon, J. Fried, "Characterization of the H3D ASIC Readout System and 6.0 cm3 3-D Position Sensitive CdZnTe Detectors" IEEE Transaction on Nucl, Sci. Vol. 59, pp. 236-242, Feb. 2012.

J. Kim, S. E. Anderson, W. Kaye, F. Zhang, Y. Zhu, S. J. Kaye, Z. He, “Charge sharing in common-grid pixelated CdZnTe detectors”, Nucl. Instr. & Meth. A. Vol. 654 (1), pp 233-243, Oct. 2011.

Y. Zhu, S. E. Anderson, Z. He, "Sub-Pixel Position Sensing for
Pixelated, 3-D Position Sensitive, Wide Band-Gap, Semiconductor,
Gamma-Ray Detectors
", Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on Nucl. Sci. Vol. 58 (3), pp. 1400-1409, Jun. 2011.

F. Zhang, Z. He, C. E. Seifert, “A Prototype Three-Dimensional Position Sensitive CdZnTe Detector Array”, IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci. Vol. 54 (4), pp. 843-848, Aug. 2007

F. Zhang, Z. He, "New readout electronics for 3-D position sensitive CdZnTe/HgI2 detector arrays", IEEE Tran. on Nucl. Sci. vol. 53 (5), pp. 3021-3027, Oct. 2006.

F. Zhang, Z. He, D. Xu, L. J. Meng, "Feasibility study of using two 3-D position sensitive CZT detectors for small animal PET", IEEE conference record on
Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, Puerto Rico, Oct.
2005.

F. Zhang, Z. He, G. F. Knoll, D. K. Wehe, J. E. Berry, "3-D position sensitive CdZnTe spectrometer performance using third generation VAS/TAT readout electronics", IEEE Tran. on Nucl. Sci. vol. 52(6), pp. 2009 - 2016 , 2005.

L. Meng, Z. He, "Exploring the limiting timing resolution for large volume CZT detectors with waveform analysis", Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 550, pp. 435-445, 2005.

F. Zhang, Z. He, "3D position-sensitive CdZnTe gamma-ray spectrometers: improved performance with new ASICs", Proceedings SPIE, vol. 5540, pp. 135–143, 2004.

F. Zhang, Z. He, D. Xu, "Analysis of detector response using 3-D position-sensitive CZT gamma-ray spectrometers", IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci. vol. 51(6), pp. 3098-3104, 2004.

F. Zhang, Z. He, D. Xu, "Improved Resolution for 3-D Position Sensitive CdZnTe Spectrometers", IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci. vol. 51(5), pp. 2427-2431, 2004.

W. Li, Z. He, G. F. Knoll, D. K. Wehe, and J. E. Berry, "Experimental results from an Imarad 8*8 pixellated CZT detector," Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 458, pp. 518-26, 2001.

W. Li, Z. He, G. F. Knoll, D. K. Wehe, and Y. F. Du, "A modeling method to calibrate the interaction depth in 3-D position sensitive CdZnTe gamma-ray spectrometers," IEEE Tran. on Nucl. Sci., vol. 47, pp. 890-4, 2000.

Z. He, W. Li, G. F. Knoll, D. K. Wehe, and C. M. Stahle, "Measurement of material uniformity using 3-D position sensitive CdZnTe gamma-ray spectrometers," Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 441, pp. 459-467, 2000.

Z. He, W. Li, G. F. Knoll, D. K. Wehe, and Y. F. Du, "Effects of charge sharing in 3-D position sensitive CdZnTe gamma-ray spectrometers," Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 439, pp. 619-624, 2000.

W. Li, Z. He, G. F. Knoll, D. K. Wehe, and J. E. Berry, "A data acquisition and processing system for 3D position sensitive CZT gamma-ray spectrometers," IEEE Tran. on Nucl. Sci., vol. 46, pp. 1989-94, 1999.

Y. F. Du, Z. He, W. Li, G. F. Knoll, and D. K. Wehe, "Monte Carlo investigation of the charge sharing effects in 3-D position sensitive CdZnTe gamma ray spectrometers," IEEE Tran. on Nucl. Sci., vol. 46, pp. 844-847, 1999.

W. Li, Z. He, G. F. Knoll, D. K. Wehe, and C. M. Stahle, "Spatial variation of energy resolution in 3-D position sensitive CZT gamma-ray spectrometers," IEEE Tran. on Nucl. Sci., vol. 46, pp. 187-92, 1999.

Z. He, W. Li, G. F. Knoll, D. K. Wehe, J. Berry, and C. M. Stahle, "3-D position sensitive CdZnTe gamma-ray spectrometers," Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 422, pp. 173-8, 1999.

H. Yang, “Applications of Digital ASIC Array System for Noise Analysis, Non-linearity Correction, Event Classification and Reconstruction”, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2013.

Y. Boucher, “Analysis of Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detector Performance and Characteristics for Applications in Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometers”, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2013.

C. Thrall, “Alternative Wide-Band-Gap Materials for Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy”, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2013.

J. Jaworski, “Compton Imaging Algorithms for Position-Sensitive Gamma-Ray Detectors in the Presence of Motion”, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2013.

M. Rodrigues, “High-Flux Experiments and Simulations of Pulse-Mode Position-Sensitive CdZnTe PixelatedDetectors”, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2012.

W. Kaye, “Energy and Position Reconstruction in Pixelated CdZnTe Detectors”, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2012.

Y. Zhu, “Digital Signal Processing Methods for Pixelated 3-D Position Sensitive Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detectors”, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2012.

D. Lingenfelter, “Source Detection and Image Reconstruction with Position-Sensitive Gamma-Ray Detectors”, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2012.

W. Wang, “Techniques and Applications of Compton Imaging for Position-Sensitive Gamma-Ray Detectors”, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2011.

C. Wahl, “Imaging, Detection, and Identification Algorithms for Position-Sensitive Gamma-Ray Detectors”, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2011.

S. Anderson, “Event Classification for 3-D Position Sensitive Semiconductor Detectors”, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2011.

B. Sturm, "Gamma-ray Spectroscopy using depth-sensing coplanar grid CdZnTe semiconductor detectors", Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan,  2007.

S. Kiff, "Coplanar anode implementation in compressed xenon ionization chambers", Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan,  2007.

D, Xu, “ Gamma-ray imaging and polarization measure using 3-d position-sensitive CdZnTe detectors”, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan,  2006.

F. Zhang, “Events reconstruction in 3-D position sensitive CdZnTe gamma-ray spectrometers”, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2005.

C. Lehner, “4-pi Compton imaging using a single 3-d position sensitive CdZnTe detector”, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2004.

J. Baciak, “Development of pixilated HgI2 radiation detectors for room temperature gamma-ray spectroscopy”, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2004.

C. Sullivan, “Single polarity charge sensing in high pressure xenon using a coplanar anode configuration”, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2002.

Y. Du, “Development of a prototype Compton scattering camera using 3-d position sensitive CZT detectors”, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2001.

W. Li, “Three-dimensional position sensitive CdZnTe gamma ray spectrometers”, Ph. D Thesis, University of Michigan, 2001.

Ph.D. Dissertations

W. Koehler, Z. He, C. Thrall, S. O'Neal, H. Kim, L. Cirignano, K. Shah, “Quantitative investigation of room-temperature breakdown effects in pixelated TlBr detectors”, IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci., vol. 61, pp. 2573-2578, 2014.

C. Thrall, W. Kaye, Z. He, H. Kim, L. Cirignano, K. Shah, “Transient Behavior in TlBr Gamma-Ray Detectors and Its Analysis Using 3-D Position Sensing”, IEEE Tran. On Nucl. Sci., vol. 60, pp. 1162-1167, 2013.

B. Donmez, Z. He, H. Kim, L. J. Cirignano, K. S. Shah, "Collection of holes in thick TlBr detectors at low temperature", Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 689, pp. 7-11, 2012. 

B. Donmez, Z. He, H. Kim, L. J. Cirignano, K. S. Shah, "The stability of TlBr detectors at low temperature", Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A, vol. 623, pp. 1024-1029, 2010. 

Thallium Bromide Detectors